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Frequently Asked Questions
FAQs

Keep in mind that these answers are based on what we have researched and found personally to be true.  We are not Vets or experts.  We are small breeders who have had some small experiences, learned a bit, and are willing to share our beliefs.  Hopefully there is something here that will help others.


1. Q. Do males & females have different personalities?
 
  A. No they do not.

Gender does not directly determine intelligence, affection, sociability, submission, dominance, aggression, activity level, ability to be housetrained, willingness to learn or much else in a dog.

Just like with people each dog has a different and distinctive personality.  That is why we take the care we do in placing a puppy or dog in a new home.  It is important for the personalities of the dog and their new people be a compliment.

Let me also de-bunk a popular misconception.  Boys are not the only ones who mark, girls do as well, they are just a bit more subtle about it.  I often have have people indicate that the don't want a male because they mark.  Marking is a dominate behavior most common in un-altered adults.  A non-breeding pet Pom needs to be taught that marking is not acceptable behavior.  In the mean time a belly band or britches (for the girls) can save a lot of stress and cleaner.


2. Q. Do females shed more than males?
 
  A.  In unaltered, females shed more often then males due to hormonal changes during her cycles. Spayed females do not shed more than males. ALL DOGS SHED, at least twice per year.  Curly coated breeds such as the Poodle have a "tangle effect" which holds onto the hair until it is combed out. Short-coated breeds (such as Dalmatians) shed also and the hair is often more difficult to pick up even with a vacuum cleaner due to it's texture.   

Pomeranians primarily shed their undercoat, which requires brushing all the way to their skin during that shed or matting will occur.  A Pomeranian does not require as much grooming as some of the other long haired breeds (or even some short coated breeds).  Be prepared to brush your dog two or three times weekly.  Grooming should be a time enjoyed both by your Pomeranian and yourself.


3. Q. Are females or males easier to housetrain and train in general?
 
  A.  NEITHER

Each dog is an individual and has different learning curves and responds to different methods of training differently. High intelligence doesn't always make a dog more trainable, sometimes it just makes them more wily in ways to thwart you! HUMAN BONDING is the single most important factor in your dog's trainability. You must be bonded to your dog for it to even want to please you. Can you blame it? I don't have much desire to please a stranger, or someone I don't like myself, so I can't blame the dogs too much.

Age also plays a role in in how well they house train.  Puppies will have to go to the bathroom more often than an adult.  There are many aids and methods in potty training; piddle pads, litter boxes, belly bands and britches.  All can be great stress relievers during the training process.

Potty training takes consistency and attention.  The puppy must go out after eating, sleeping, playing, etc.  At first you will find yourself going out every hour or two.  Soon those times will lengthen and the outings will be longer apart.  Even with my older rescue dogs if I revert to "puppy" training most times they are very trainable.  They don't learn it on their own, they have to be taught.

The most common puppy training mistake that I see made is punishing the dog after the deed is done.  This only teaches them to be fearful, of the rug, of your hand, you or whatever they relate to the punishment, it is completely ineffective for the potty training as they cannot relate the punishment to the completed behavior.  I find that it is common that the person who complains their pet won't come to them is generally the one who has used their hands to spank or punish the puppy.  I wouldn't come either if I expected to be hit.  In order to punish you have to catch them in the process of performing the act.  Even then the correction is "No" "Outside" and out the door you go.  Rubbing their noses in it does no good and spanking is just crewel and ineffective.  Consider that, to a dog, poo is really cool stuff and rubbing their noses in the poo is not the most horrible thing that can happen to them. They don't relate that they are responsible to the poo that they are getting rubbed in their face.

Another common issue with potty training is the dog who gets "reversed".  If your dog is going outside and doing nothing... then as soon as you come in the door they piddle on the floor.  That dog is reversed.  Two things are important here.  The first is that you don't give up on them when you are outside.  Stay out there until the dog has done their business, then come in.  The other is a bit of a "fooled ya" trick.  When they are done, then come in, turn a circle, and go right back outside.  This will allow the body to say "hmmm... I am inside now time to potty..." then when they get outside the body is started and they go.  Tons of praise when they go and you are good to go back inside.  Generally two or three times of this and they have gotten "un-reversed".


4. Q. Should I alter (spay/neuter) my pet and at what age?
 
  A. 

Absolutely you should alter your pet.

One of the leading causes of death in pet animals is mammary gland and testicular cancers. Early altering will prevent the sexual maturation and greatly reduce (almost eliminate) the incidence of these cancers.

One of the most common reasons animals are abandoned have to do with housebreaking. The scent of estrus is noticeable to dogs for five miles! Instinct causes your dog to respond to this scent with urinating in their surroundings to mark their territory. Females piddle in tiny amounts and therefore it is less noticeable, and males lift their leg and urinate on objects to mark territory-which is more noticeable, but both genders mark their territory when left unaltered. Since the scent of urine is present-it then causes problems with defecation in the house as well. Since sexual maturity occurs in toy breed dogs well before the age of one year old this makes it advisable to alter your pet between the age of five and seven months of age (In boys, before they learn to lift their legs). Most vets recommend this age as well.

Two very good reasons to alter your pet.


5. Q. Will spaying/neutering make my dog fat?
 
  A.  No

The activity level and diet of your pet determine it's weight.  If unusual weight gain happens then thyroid testing may be in order, or outside sources of food not under your control, well meaning neighbors for instance, should be considered.  Maybe they just need to start going for a long evening walk.


6. Q. Should I breed my dog to "settle it down"?
 
  A.  Absolutely not.

There are good reasons to breed an animal that is not major faulted, but this certainly isn't one of them! You are jeopardizing the future health of your pet by doing so. (See the section on "Should I spay/neuter?") Breeding will not "settle down" an animal with a behavior problem.  As soon as the dog's energy returns, after the ordeal of the whelping (in a female) and within 1 hour of the mating (in a male), their youthful exuberance will return to their normal "un-settled" state.  Then you will also have a young dog who is not a pet anymore, but a breeding animal with all the accompanying instincts and a whole new set of problems.

For behavior problems you should seek professional assistance from someone who is experience in training.  

Many litters each year are bred for the wrong reasons.  They end up in all kinds of situations.  If they aren't surrendered or euthanized they end up in over crowded situations with owners that really just wanted to "settle down" the parent and were not prepared for the stress and expense of a whole litter of puppies that are not settled...  You'll sacrifice way more than you'll ever gain from that litter.

If you do breed for the right reason, to carry on a wonderful lineage from a wonderful example of the breed, be prepared to deal with the many problems that surface after the arrival of the litter. Ask yourself some questions. 

  •  Can you take off work for at least the first four weeks to ensure the survival of the litter when the mother does not survive whelping?  These puppies will have to be bottle fed every two hours for those four weeks.
  • Do you have firm buyers-and deposits for all the possible puppies, and will they make good homes for the dogs? (Hint-make sure they have references.)
  • Are you now prepared to deal with the probable behavior changes your dog will develop due to mating instincts in the future?
  • Since behavior is a genetic trait that will be inherited by the puppies.  Are you now prepared to deal with that behavior problem you have passed to those puppies, in your attempt to "settle it down"?
  • Are you willing to risk the life of your much loved momma in order to have puppies.  This is a very true risk with these petite breeds.

7. Q.  We are going to have a baby.  Do I need to give away my pets?
 
  A. 

Absolutely there is no reason to give away your pet if you are expecting a new baby, unless the pet has aggression issues before the child came along.  Pets with children can be very rewarding for you, your pet and your child. 

If you are having aggression issues that you are concerned about a good obedience class would be of benefit for both you and your pet.  That obedience instructor may suggest further behavioral modification sessions if a pet is still having issues.


8. Q.  Should I breed for just one litter to give my children the experience of the "miracle of birth"?
 
  A.  Birthing is a miracle, but NOT one I would ever want my children to witness!

It is bloody, agonizing, and potentially very dangerous to the dog and the puppies. MANY small breed females have Caesarean sections and MANY of them die. That is not something I would wish to subject my young children to. Children are usually very emotionally involved with their pet and it is a potentially traumatic experience for them, far from the "miracle" you hoped it would be.  Additionally you are putting the life of their much loved pet at risk with any pregnancy. What kind of "miracle" would that child see to watch their pet and her puppies die during that "miracle"?


9. Q. I just love the personality of my Pom.  Should I breed her to keep that personality in a puppy?
 
  A.   The personality of the Pomeranian is an amazing thing.  They are outgoing, loving, adorable creatures.  This personality is a breed trait, not just a trait of your pet.  You can find that personality in other Poms.  Before you consider risking your pet's life in breeding her, consider taking in a rescue.

10. Q. How often do I bathe & brush my Pom, and with what?
 
  A.  The Pom has dry skin and coat; and requires bathing approximately every other month or every third month-according to their lifestyle.  Use a gentle dog shampoo (I use a Protein Lanolin dog shampoo).  Don't use people shampoo as it is not formulated for a dog's skin and hair type and can be drying. 

Between baths you can use a bit of baby powder for a dry cleaning that keeps them sweet smelling. Make sure not to get the powder in the Pom's nose.  You can also use a "steam bath" method of taking a VERY hot wet towel and wrapping it around the dog for a few minutes, then rub vigorously. The steam bath will remove a great deal of soil from their coat.

Brush with a metal pin brush (the longer pins the better) and metal detangling comb thoroughly at least once per week.  I keep my brush on my coffee table and brush someone every evening while watching television.  Watch for mats behind the ears, under the front arms and along the backs of the legs as these are the areas where the coat is finer and will tend to mat.  Be sure to brush before a bath and after the coat has dried after a bath, that is when you will get most of the loose coat out.


11. Q. The puppy that I purchased has lost all of its coat.  Is there something wrong?  Is this really a Pomeranian?
 
  A.  If you purchased an AKC Pom from us, I can say for certain, "Yes this is indeed a Pomeranian."  Your Pomeranian's coat will have many changes as it goes through its life.  Many new owners are not prepared for the changes their furbabies fluff will go through as they mature.  We have had buyers contact us after their fluffy baby has turned as naked as a jay bird and are worried that it will never come back.  We have had them even ask if we had really sold them a pure bred Pom.  This is called "the puppy uglies" and "monkey face" these are different terms with the same meanings. Most Pomeranian puppies will shed their puppy coat and by 10 months of age their adult coat is well on its way to coming in.  

Expect a blow again at the one year shed.  Males will achieve their full and glorious coat at about 2 years of age.  The Female, on the other hand, is another story.  Expect her coat to blow with each season and each litter and take about 6 months to re-coat.


12. Q. Why should I buy from a show breeder instead of a local puppy mill or backyard breeder?
 
  A.  For this one I would first like to define what Puppy Mills, Backyard, Commercial, and Show Breeders are.

Puppy Mill - A breeder who produces puppies hand over fist with no breeding program, little attention to puppy placement , and poor health and socialization practices.  A puppy mill may or may not be dirty, but is usually overcrowded.  Dogs may be neglected because the breeder can't properly handle as many dogs as they have.  Puppy mills are not conscious of breeding genetic issues or breeding with the AKC or UKC standard in mind.

Backyard Breeder - A dog owner whose pet either gets bred by accident or who breeds on purpose for a variety of reasons.  This breeder is usually ignorant of the breed standard, genetics, behavior, and good health practices.  This is often the breeder who is breeding a couple of dogs just to make a bit of extra cash. 

Commercial Breeder - One who usually has several breeds of dogs with profit as the primary motive for existence.  the dogs may be healthy or not and the kennel may be clean or not.  The dogs are probably not screened for genetic diseases and the breeding stock is probably not selected for closeness to the breed standard or for good temperament.  Most commercial breeders sell their puppies to pet store or to brokers who sell to pet stores.

Show Breeders - A breed fancier who usually only has one breed, but may have more.  They follow a breeding plan in the efforts to preserve and protect the breed.  A show breeder will keep their numbers small so that all have the personal attention they disserve.  They produce a small number of litter per year, breeds only when a litter will enhance the breed and the breeding program.  They raise the puppies with plenty of environmental and human contact.  They have a contract and health guarantee that protects the breeder, dog and the buyer.  They run a small clean kennel; screen breeding stock to eliminate hereditary defects from the breed; works with a  breed club or kennel club to promote and protect the breed; and cares that each and every puppy is placed in the best home possible.  A show breeder will usually be active in some type of rescue program.

Ok, so now to answer the question...

The first most obvious reason is the overall quality of the animals they produce. Because of ignorance (or disregard) in how to breed quality, puppy mill & backyard breeder puppies are often genetically defective and will cost you much money, time & heartache to prolong their life. If you're lucky you won't invest hundreds or thousands of dollars at your vet's for that $200 puppy.

In buying from a show breeder you are getting a puppy where the best qualities have been considered in the breeding program.  You will gain a person who is willing to support you with their expertise and advice in your ownership of your Pom. A show breeder will offer resources, such as booklets and websites, with helpful answers to your most asked questions.  They will be available by telephone or e-mail for helpful advice regarding your puppy. In using a respected show breeder you can expect a positive experience regarding your dog's ownership from them.

"Bargain " dogs don't usually end up being much of a bargain.


13. Q. If I buy a female from you can I breed it to one of your males?
 
  A.  Only if you purchased a breeding quality female.

ALL pet puppies of either gender have limited registration and no puppies from them can ever be registered with AKC. If you purchased a pet puppy from me you also signed a contract that you would have that pet altered. 

If you purchased a breeding quality female, then the answer may be yes, but please read the cautionary statements above first and decide if you really want to be a breeder.  For instance:  Do you know how to tubefeed a weak puppy?  Are you financially prepared to give your breeding females the care they may need when they have problems with a pregnancy? Are you committed to becoming a breeder and have the betterment of the breed in mind with your program?

If you are committed to becoming a show breeder and are prepared for the risks involved, I will help you succeed to the best of my ability. Even dog breeders like company in this often heartbreaking profession and often we need a spare shoulder to cry on, or someone to share a triumph with. If you like roller coasters you might like breeding.


14. Q. Does the line or in breeding I see in my dog's pedigree make my dog susceptible to problems?
 
  A. 

If the breeder who is doing the line/in breeding understands what they are doing, and has done the proper genetic investigation, line and in breeding can be a great benefit to a breeding program.  It can allow a breeder to strengthen a desired trait within a line.  It has to be done carefully and may include genetic testing and extensive line research.  Not only can line/in breeding strengthen a desired trait and be used to eliminate faults.  It can also bring out other hidden faults.  Doubling up on a line that carries heart disease or collapsing trachea is going to strengthen those traits as well as the good trait you were originally looking for.

As you can see if the breeder is a backyard breeder who doesn't really understand what they are doing, are guessing, and are not doing the proper genetic investigation it can produce disastrous results.  This is just one more reason to find a reputable show breeder for your puppy.


15. Q. I have heard that Pomeranians are prone to knee and trachea issues.  Is that true?  Do all Poms have problems with them?
 
  A. 

Toy breeds, in general and not exclusivelyare prone to those problems.  The speed that the Pomeranian breed has come down in size has contributed to the issues that are seen with most breeds of dogs.  A reputable show breeder is doing careful genetic selection and is not breeding animals that have or produce those issues, so no, not all Poms have the problems.  Visit with your breeder, talk to them about the kind of breeding problem they have, watch the parents of the dog you are purchasing.  If the parent has a problem, then it is likely the puppy will also have it. 

OK, first the disclaimer...  I am not a Vet what I say here is my own personal opinion...  Now for the opinions... 

Trachea

Where trachea issues is a genetic tendency that a good breeder is working to avoid in their breeding program, most of the trachea issues that I have seen seem to be related to the improper use of collars.  Poms should be in an H type harness where there is a strap between the front legs that holds the upper strap off of the throat.  Poms should never be in a choke type of collar and standard collars used with a leash are just asking for trouble.  Poor health and overweight are also contributing causes for trachea issues.  Here are a couple of great links on trachea issues.

Knee/Patella

Over the past couple of years we have seen an alarming trend for un-necessary expensive surgeries (especially in the area of knee issues).  If your Vet is telling you that your dog needs knee surgery we recommend a couple of things to try before jumping into that traumatic event. 

  • See an Animal Chiropractor.  They should be board certified.  We are finding that often times something out in the back can give the appearance of being a knee issue where it is truly just a symptom of the real problem.  If it is a problem with spine alignment you should see results very quickly. 
  • Put your dog on Gluclosamine.  If you see results from this (and you should within the first couple of weeks of starting), it could be that this isn't an issue requiring surgery, but an injury that needs time and physical therapy to resolve.
  • Create your own physical therapy program.  Kennel rest is the most important piece of this.  If your dog is jumping and running around, they are going to continue to re-injure the joint.  Think of the things that a therapist will do to exercise the joint of a human.  Visit with your Vet about the types of movement that a dog's muscles require.
  • Lastly get a second and third opinion, not just from specialists, but from the small rural vet as well.  Their recommendation should be basing this in fact, look at the ex-rays, take them with you to the other Vet's and have them look at them.  Make sure that they are looking at more than just the knees, but the back and hips as well. 

Then make your decision based on the knowledge that surgery isn't a quick fix.  You will be starting on a long path to recovery as not only will your dog be recovering from the surgery, you will be doing the physical therapy as well.  Where surgery is preformed your dog is more likely to have issues with arthritis in that joint as they age.  One additional piece of advice... knee surgery shouldn't cost $1000's of dollars.  Depending on your area it should be less than $800 per knee.  Shop around, find someone you like and trust.  The college in Salem, Oregon State University and Washington State University have great Vet teaching programs.  They are always my recommendation for a second opinion and they will be very reasonable on the costs involved is surgery is necessary.

Below is an extract of an article that I have found to be very accurate.  I have not been able to identify the author, but the insights into knee structure have been very helpful.

Patellar Luxation  

In normally developed legs, the bones of the upper leg bone, better known as the femur, and lower leg bone, better known as the tibia, are straight. The thigh muscles are aligned with the bones and run from the hip joints in a straight line over the knee joint, attached to the patella or knee cap, then attached to the tibia crest. The only way that a dog with straight legs and good muscle can have a slipped stifle is from a trauma or injury in which the muscles and tissues holding the knee caps in place are accidentally torn or weakened. Many bad stifles are caused by allowing young dogs too much freedom to jump or play on slippery floors. Such stifles are not inherited. To be inherited the thigh bones must bow outward. There is no way that the taut muscles of the leg can follow the curve of a bone. Instead it pulls to the inside of the legs and the patella's are luxated or slipped to the inside of the legs from their correct position. It is the bowed legs that are inherited and cause subluxation of the patella's rather than the subluxed patella that is inherited. When a dog with straight legs runs, the action of the muscles is free and they pull in a straight line over the center of the knee caps, but when the legs are bowed and the dog runs, the knee caps are pulled to the inside of the legs. In so doing, most of the supporting tissues around the Patella's are weakened and become torn so that the patella's are free to slip in and out anytime there is the least amount of pull.

16. Q. What is BSD and how is it spread?
 
  A BSD is the acronym for Black Skin Disease it is also known as Alopecia X, Severe Hair Loss (SHL) syndrome and more (there seems to be confusion on what to call it, lately we are hearing more Alopecia X than anything else).  This condition or something similar is found in many of the Nordic breeds.  Visually (keep this word in mind as genetically it is different) it most generally occurs in males between the age of 18 months and 3 years.  In Poms, many dogs begin to show signs as early as one year, with late onset at five years.  There are many other conditions that can cause similar manifestations.  These might be hypothyroidism, Cushing’s and Addison’s disease, hormone imbalance, even parasites, which can all be tested for.  The key to a BSD diagnosis at this point in the game is to eliminate the other “like” conditions.  This means taking that dog to a dermatologist for some extensive tissue testing.

The term “black skin” is confusing as this is really only a symptom of the genetic condition, rather than the condition itself.  BSD is NOT a disease, it is a birth defect, a mutation of the genes. The coat loss allows exposure to the sun, which in turn will cause the skin to darken (hence the name BSD).  There are other symptoms that seem to go along with BSD, itching, joint problems, bone thinning, roach back and others.  
 
There is some information over the past few years BSD may be an X linked genetic issue.  There is no genetic proof yet, this is merely a trend that has been seen from the available data. What that means is that the condition is passed through the mothers who will (most likely) never show a sign of being a carrier.   A sire who is affected (visual signs of it) can only pass this mutation to his daughters (who will never show the visual affects, they are just carriers).  A mother will pass this to both her sons and her daughters (the sons will show the visual affects and the daughters will again be carriers).  At the bottom of this answer you will find a table that shows the genetic transference chart. This mode of inheritance is simply a theory at this point.  A tool  to help minimize the occurrence.   Certainly these are just theories at this point in time.  Until there is evidence otherwise this is the “trend” we have to go on.  Of course there are occurrences that appear to be contrary to this theory.
 
A good breeder needs to understand their lines and to breed accordingly, not breeding the Affected Male, the less common Affected Female or the difficult to identify Carrier Female.  Understanding that the Female is the most dangerous as they never manifest the “visual” signs, they are the silent carrier.  If a Female has produced an affected dog they should be removed from the breeding program (evidenced in the chart below).  If the x linked theory is accurate, the problem here is that the Female has to produce it in a male offspring in order to identify if she is a carrier.  A good breeder will fully disclose all known information about any genetic issue in their breeding program, including cases and histories of BSD.
 
In the majority cases young neutered boys have shown no manifestation of the condition.  The thought is that it might be the release of testosterone that occurs after that time and triggers the conditions visual affects.  If this actually  stops them from developing the condition or if they did not carry the condition remains to be proven.  Females from the affected or carrier parents should be spay and definitely not be used in a breeding program.  Since they are the "silent" carriers they can completely undermine a breeding program. 

At the time of spay or neuter all samples should be sent in for testing.  Research is trying to find the gene and the mode of inheritance.  Once they do they, hopefully, will provide us with a means to test for Alopecia X.
 
Here are a couple of more links with more information on this condition:

DAM

X

SIRE

=

FEMALE OFFSPRING ARE

MALES OFFSPRING ARE

OK Female

bred to

OK Male

produce

All OK Females

All OK Males

Affected Female

bred to

OK Male

produce

All Carrier Females

All Affected Males

Carrier Female

bred to

OK Male

produce

50% risk of Carrier Females

50% risk of Affected or OK Males

OK Female

bred to

Affected Male

produce

All Carrier Females

All OK Males

Affected Female

bred to

Affected Male

produce

All Affected Females

All Affected Males

Carrier Female

bred to

Affected Male

produce

50% risk of Affected or Carrier Females

50% risk of Affected or OK Males

Table from Ro-jan Poms and X linked inheritance pattern verified with passages found in
Control of Canine Genetic Diseases (author, George A Padgett, DVM)

 


17. Q. I am looking for a "TeaCup" Pom.  What are the size differentiations in Poms.
 
  A.  There is no such thing as a "TeaCup", "Pocket", "Miniature" or "Standard" Pomeranian.  These are all marketing terms created by the puppy millers and pet stores.

The Pomeranian breed is in the AKC Toy Group, or UKC Companion Group.  The standard for these clubs requires a proper Pomeranian to be from 3 to 7 pounds. 

Since the origination of our breed comes from the Spitz breeds we do, on occasion, see throw backs to those larger sizes.  With a good breeder that will not be a common occurrence.  The sizes over 7lbs are more commonly found with puppy millers and back yard breeders.  The back yard breeders generally don't really know what they are doing and are just breeding to produce a few puppies for money.  Puppy Millers and Commercial breeders are also in this for the money and since a Pomeranian of the proper 3 to 7lb size will produce from 1 to 3 puppies it is more profitable for them to use larger sized girl that will produce larger litters.  More puppies in a litter becomes more profit for them.

When a Pomeranian is referred to as "TeaCup", "Pocket" or "Minature", they are generally referring to the 3 to 7lb size that is the standard for the breed.  When they are referred to as "Standard" they are generally referring to the larger size of 10lbs and larger that are the throwbacks to our past generations.  

A good breeder may also on occasion produce smaller than the 3lb standard.  Very often these tiny ones are prone to health issues, at least through their puppyhood, with hypoglycemia being the most common one.  They can have open fontanel's that don't close as they mature and are generally more delicate that the dogs of the 3 to 7 lb range.  Definitely their smaller bones are more at risk to breaking when jumping off the couch, etc.  Again, these tiny kids are not a common occurrence with a breeder who is truly trying to do the best for the breed.  And, a conscientious breeder will not be using these tiny ones for breeding or breeding with the intention to produce under the AKC/UKC standard size.

 


As stated throughout this page. 
I am no expert, these are just things I have found to be helpful to me and/or represent my own opinion. 
Hopefully they will be helpful to you.



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